Breakthrou

Composer: Roger Taylor, intro: Freddie Mercury
Single:
Meter: 4/4
Key: F-Major, F#-Major
Form:  

        Intro I-II | Verse | Chorus (A)  |    Bridge     |
          Intro II | Verse | Chorus'(AA')| Solo (Bridge')|
                           | Chorus'(AA") / Outro |

"Breakthrou" is a pop-rock song with a jazzy vocal intro. The arrangement features electric organ, synth drums and synth bass. The latter is switching to bass guitar for the solo section. The songform consists of two full cycles followed by a key-shifted up chorus.

Intro I
The intro can be divided to two parts. The first one is style-wise totally different from the song itself. It was composed by Mercury as an intro of another demo track called "New Life Is Born".  It starts acapella for 4+1 voices in the second part some piano is played as well. The tight jazzy harmonies belong to the band's finest harmony arrangements, and provokes the question who else in te rock-n-roll business beside Mercury would be able to arrange something like this. Just think of it!
The harmony is too ambigous for making functional analysis except the last phrase where the melody was taken from the Bridge. The metric frame is also ambigous here and there.

| Gm Gm6 | Ebmaj7 Ebm7/Db |

| Dhalfdim/F... | Cdim7  | Dhalfdim/C Db7/B |

 half
|    | Gb6   | Eb7   | 

| Ab    | 

 | C    | Bbmaj7 | -    |
F: V    | IV     | -    |

The second subsection is a traditional instrumental intro exposing the tonic and the oscillating main hook of the song. The hook phrase is played twice, its inner subphrasing is 1+1+2, AAA'. Some antiphonal panning is applied for the first two phrases.

/---------- 2x ---------\\
| F3  | -   | -   | -   |
| I   | -   | -   | -   |


Verse
The verse consists of five four measure phrases, AAABB'. The dramatic bow of the verse is rising parallel with the lead vocal from the fourth phrase on leading to the climatctic chorus. Note the built-in chromatic motion in the last  measures. The pedal bass in the first four phrases is articulated by the repetition of the main hook. In the fourth phrase the hook-variant uses tritone interval for tension-creating effect.

/--------- 3x -----------\\
| F   | -   | Bb/F | -   |
| I   | -   | IV   | -   |

| Bb  | -   | C/Bb | -   |
| IV  | -   | V    | -   |

              D    | Eb  E  |(F) : chromatic inner line
| Bb  | -   | Dm   | Eb C/E |
| IV  | -   | vi   |bVII V  |

The second verse adds lead guitar fills filling the gaps of the lead vocal.

Chorus
We have three choruses the second and third of which is doubling up the first 8 measure. The oscillating hook is carried on throughout the whole section.

| F   | -   |
| I   | -   |

| C   | -   |
| V   | -   | 

| Bb  | -   |
| IV  | -   |

| Bb  | -   |
| IV  | -   |

| F   | -   | -   | -   |
| I   | -   | -   | -   |

The second chorus adds oscillating vocal harmonies introducing the double-up subsection.

Bridge
The song has one "normal" Bridge plus an instrumental one for the guitar solo. The hook is played until the third phrase where Deacon enter on bass. Here is the only phrase in the song with uneven length albeit the vocal phrase overlaps the next phrase. The vocal phrases in both first two harmonic phrases consist of a harmony vocal and solo vocal subphrases.

| F   | -   | Eb/F | -   |
| I   | -   | bVII | -   |

| F   | -   | Eb/F | -   |
| I   | -   | bVII | -   |

| Dm  | -   | G    | -   | F/A | -   |
| vi  | -   | II   | -   | I   | -   |

| Bb  | -   | Dm C | Bb  | -   |
| IV  | -   | vi V | IV  | -   |

| C   | -   | -   | -   |
| V   | -   | -   | -   |


Solo
The instrumental Bridge starts with an economic bass solo (three different notes) over the synth bass hook in the background. From the third phrase on guitar is the lead instrument, which starts with unisono bend notes.
The m13-14 and m15-16 creat a pair of phrases both playing an ascending scales in triplets (see "White Queen") and panned to left/right (see bass in "Millionaire waltzer").

The last phrase is modified and adds an extra phrase of guitar harmonies parallelling the previous phrase a half step higher preparing the key shift-up. The closing bIII chord creates a feel of a further modulation but we stay in F# until the end of the song.
Both phrases are using the 3+5 pattern of emphases.

| C5  D4 | E1  F1 |
| 5th 6th| 7th 1st|

 | Db Ebm6 | Db/F /Ab | A    | -   | (F#)
F#: V  vi  | V        | bIII | -   |


Outro
The outro is developed from the last Chorus by its closing hook-phrase being repeated. The whole thing is closed by the title phrase peppered with flanger-effect.